Junkers

The German engineer and businessman Hugo Junkers was born in 1859 in Rheydt in Rhineland. He got employed by Wilhelm von Oechelhaeuser in Dessau. In 1890 they started an equal partnership. Two years later Junkers developed the first double piston gas engine.
With a determined combination of patience and system he furthered his research. In 1893 he invented the calorimeter – an instrument to evaluate the heat value of combustible material. This tool was the basis for many further inventions and enabled the founding of the hot water apparatus's factory „Junkers & Co.“ in Dessau.
Since 1902 Junkers spent more time on the manufacture of internal combustion engines. Amongst others he built oil engines which was used in the shipping. In 1907 he evolved the first counter plunger diesel engine.
One year later the businessman got interested in flying. Deciding was the cooperation with professor Hans Reissner, who dealt intensive with aerodynamic at this time. In 1913 the company „Junkers Motorenbau GmbH“ opened its gates in Magdeburg. After the First World War the Junkers-factories produced stationary engines and diesel engines for dredgers, tractors and boats. In the 1920s Junkers-engines were the most used machines for lorries and buses.
In the beginning of the 1930s the company focused more and more on flying. The first fat oil flying engine got developed. It was exported to Japan, Russia, France and Great Britain. In the world economic crisis Junkers lost money. But the company kept its independence at the expense of selling the main plant „Junkers & Co.“ to the „Robert Bosch AG“.
In 1933 the Nazis forced Hugo Junkers to sign his patents over to his companies. The majority of his shares was given to the empire aviation ministry without compensation. In 1936 the „Junkers-Motorenbau GmbH“ and the „Junkers-Flugzeugwerke AG“ was consolidated to „Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG". The company became one of the most significant armaments concern of the German empire.
In 1951 the company moved to Munich. And at least in the beginning of the 1970s it became part of the Daimler-Benz-concern.

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